Landskrona

Landskrona
Coat of arms

The small and prospering fishing village Södra Säby received its town charter in 1413 and the name Landskrona.

Erik av Pommern (Eric of Pomerania) king over Denmark, Sweden and Norway had big plans for Landskrona. He wanted Landskrona to be a trade centre in Skåne. Kristian III built Landskrona castle “Citadellet” 1549 and made Landskrona a fortified town. Landskrona castle is the centre in the fort “Citadellet”

Yet another Smiley on www.aladdin.stBig surprise The Swedish kings Karl X and Carl XI had great plans too in the 17th century. Town with a university, see and a Nordic stronghold. So there were big plans back in the days, but more about that later.

Peder Skram

When the castle Malmöhus was ready Kristian III wanted to strengthen the defence of Skåne. He gave the assignment to Admiral Peder Skram to build Landskrona castle 1549.

Landskrona castle “Citadellet”

Landskrona castle “Citadellet”
Picture from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

There was already a monastery on the spot they had chosen for the castle. So the old monastery built 1410 had to be demolish because they wanted to build the castle on the same spot. The castle was ready 1559.

And in 1589 they built a 2 storey house. First floor was used by the county sheriff, Jörgen Brahe (brother to Tycho Brahe) was the county sheriff. The second floor was used by the king
The frigate Peder Skram


The Danish frigate Peder Skramel got the name from the Admiral. The keel was laid on 25th September 1964. She was launched on 20th May 1965 and joined the Danish fleet on 25th May 1966. The frigates Peder Skram were decommissioned on 4th January 1988. Peder Skram is preserved as a living museum alongside the pier Elefanten on Nyholm, Copenhagen.

On the 6th of September 1982 Peder Skram launched a HARPOON missile by accident. The missile hit a area with summer houses just south of Lumsås. Luckiley enough it was in the autumn and there was no people in the area.

Area of impact in Lumsås
when he was on visit.

At one of their parties on the castle Tycho's tame moose got shit faced. Now imagine to keep track of 4 long legs when you are loaded with beer.

Well to make a long story short: The moose felt down the stairs and broke 1 leg. They gave the moose the best treatment but in vain.

The moose died from the injuries. Well, Tychos moose ended his day with a hangover force 9,6 and a broken leg.

Landskrona was occupied 1644 by Field Marshal Gustaf Horn but was returned to the Danes 1645 at the peace in Brömsebro. And below we find some “quick” info about the Second Treaty of Brömsebro 1645 thanks to wikipedia.

Second Treaty of Brömsebro 1645

The Second Treaty of Brömsebro (or the Peace of Brömsebro) was signed on 13 August 1645, and ended the Torstenson War, a local conflict that began in 1643 (and was part of the larger Thirty Years' War) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway. Negotiations Second Treaty of Brömsebro 1645for the treaty began in February the same year.

The military strength of Sweden ultimately forced Denmark-Norway to give in to Swedish demands.

• Denmark-Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen and Idre & Särna as well as the Danish Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel.

• The Danish heir to the throne, Frederick II Administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden (1634-1645) and of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen (1635-1645), had to resign, with the two prince-bishoprics being occupied by the Swedes.

• Sweden was exempted from the Sound Dues, a toll on foreign ships passing through Danish waters into the Baltic Sea, and Hamburg was exempted from the “Elbe dues”, a toll levied until then on ships to that city by the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen.

• Sweden received the Danish province of Halland for a period of 30 years as a guarantee of these provisions.


Brown: Denmark-Norway;
Green: Sweden;
Yellow: the provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen, Idre & Särna and the Baltic Sea islands of Gotland and Ösel, which were ceded to Sweden;
Red: the province of Halland, ceded for 30 years

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Knud Ulfeldt became county sheriff on Landskrona castle 1646. During Denmark's last year and Sweden's first year with supremacy the scraping of the old medieval area and streets continued in Landskrona to make place for the development of Landskrona castle.

Treaty of Roskilde 1658


The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February (OS) or 8 March 1658 (NS) during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Carl X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde. After a devastating defeat, Denmark-Norway was forced to give up a third of its territory to save the rest, the ceded lands comprising Blekinge, Bornholm, Bohuslän (Båhuslen), Scania (Skåne) and Trøndelag, as well as her claims to Halland.

Treaty of Roskilde 1658
The peace banquet (Fredstaffelet) at Frederiksborg Castle following the signing of the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658

After the treaty entered into force, Swedish forces continued to campaign in the remainder of Denmark-Norway, but had to withdraw from the Danish isles and Trøndelag in face of a Danish-Norwegian-Dutch alliance. The Treaty of Copenhagen restored Bornholm to Treaty of Roskilde 1658Denmark and Trøndelag to Norway in 1660, while the other provinces transferred in Roskilde remain Swedish.

The treaty's conditions included:

• The immediate cession of the Danish province Skåne to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Danish province Blekinge to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Danish province Halland, which under the terms of the Peace of Brömsebro, negotiated in 1645 was then occupied by Sweden for a term of 30 years, to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Danish province of Bornholm to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Norwegian province of Bohuslän (Båhuslen) to Sweden. This effectively secured for Sweden unrestricted access to western trade.

• The immediate cession of the Norwegian province of Trøndelag, then including Nordmøre and Romsdal, to Sweden.

• Danish renunciation of all anti-Swedish alliances.

• Danish prevention of any warships hostile to Sweden passing through the straits into the Baltic.

• Restoration of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp to his estates.

• Danish payment for Swedish occupation forces costs.

• Danish provision of troops to serve Charles in his broader wars.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As mentioned before, (I hope you have recovered from the surprise by now) the Swedish kings Carl X and Carl XI had great plans too. Town with a university, see and a Nordic stronghold. These plans were never realized. The university is still in Lund and Malmö kept its position as the county capital.

Danish king Christian V captured Landskrona 1676. Landskrona became the most important base for the Danes because of the powerful fort. The Swedish army did not manage to recapture Landskrona and had to buy it back at the peace in Lund 1679.
Landskrona town hall
Landskrona town hall

The Swedish parliament decided to make Landskrona to a strong naval defence fort 1747. They built a new fort on the island Gråen and new conurbation south of the old town.

And now the rest of the medieval town disappeared. 1754 the church S:t Johannes Baptistae (built 1420) was demolished and the church Sofia Albertina was built. On the island Gråen just outside the port of Landskrona they built a fort. Today there are summer houses on the island.

King Karl XII used Citadellet as a prison for prisoner of war from Russia and Poland. During the 19th century and until 1940 they used it as a prison. Today there is a museum and on the outer rampart they built Sweden's first allotment-garden area 1995.

Yet another Smiley on www.aladdin.stWell, now when you properly are bored to death with the Landskrona castle you understand that the Landskrona old water towerhistory of Landskrona is mostly about the castle. And of course, the many wars between Sweden and Denmark. Always war!

Or anyway, the castle has had an important role in the history of Landskrona.

The world famous coffee brand Zoega was founded 1881 by Carlos Zoega in Landskrona but moved to Helsingborg after a few years.

Old water tower
The old water tower in Landskrona is a landmark that can be seen from far away

Landskrona water tower
The new water tower in Landskrona

Landskrona became an industrial- commercial- and a shipping town. Walfrid Weibull founded the company W Weibull 1870. He sold root-crops and he also pure cultivated root fruits and produced seed. He started with plant breeding 1898.

1993 W Weibull AB merged with Svalöf AB to Svalöf Weibull AB and today Svalöf Weibull AB is one of the leading plant breeding and seed companies in Europe.

Öresundsvarvet

Öresundsvarvet was a Swedish shipyard in Landskrona that was Öresundsvarvet shipyardestablished in 1915 and largely phased out between 1980 and 1982.

Öresundsvarvet was constituted on 16 December 1915 by Gothenburg shipbuilder, Arthur Du Rietz. During a visit to Landskrona, Du Rietz heard that the city wanted to complement its industry with a shipyard. The authorities suggested an area alongside the harbour called Sydpiren, which was then under water. The city committed to provide a 1 kilometre long railway embankment and a 50-metre berth. The shipyard was opened on 21 September 1918 with the launch of the first ship, the steamer Torild, built by Rederi AB Percivald in Landskrona.

Öresundsvarvet's firs ship, the steamer Torild
Öresundsvarvet's firs ship, the steamer Torild
Picture from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The company expanded quickly and by autumn 1920 the yard had grown to 15 hectares with a 150-metre long fit-out in 7 metres of water. In 1922, the shipyard could build eleven new vessels of 50,000 tonnes, but it was declared bankrupt due to poor economic conditions. New Oresund Shipbuilding Company (Swedish: Nya Varvsaktiebolaget Öresund) was formed in April 1923 which could build seven vessels of 26,000 tonnes deadweight.

In 1935, the company name was changed to Öresundsvarvet AB. A floating dock for vessels up to 5,000 tonnes was purchased from Copenhagen in 1936. In 1940 the shipyard was taken over by Götaverken, who then supplied the shipyard's newbuilding’s with new machinery. During World War II, the yard built a coastal destroyer and two minesweepers. In all, during the period from 1931 to 1944 the shipyard built fifty ships totalling 220,000 tonnes.

Öresundsvarvet shipyard
Equipment quay with engineering and dry dock in 1947.
Picture from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Öresundsvarvet shipyard
Öresundsvarvet shipyard 1973 - Click HERE for big photo
Picture from the excellent page Öresundsvarvet


m/s Nihon at Öresundsvarvet shipyard
m/s Nihon at Öresundsvarvet shipyard in the begining of the 70's
Picture from www.varv100.se

Movie from the 1970's about the metalwork school on Öresundsvarvet

The yard experienced post-war economic growth and had expanded by 1975 to 3,500 employees. In 1972, it built one m/s Nihonof the world's largest container ships Nihon for the Swedish East Asiatic Company (Broström)

I was on board m/t Stolt Excellence on a trip from New Orleans to Le Havre back in 1997. We passed the Azores on the 27th of November and it was full storm on the Atlantic ocean.

m/t Stolt Excellence
Full storm on the Atlantic Ocean

November and predominated winds are strong and from west. We had terrible weather all the way from the US to Europe. One night on watch I could see plenty light on deck. I called the Captain and I went to investigate.

We had boxes with our lifebelts on boat deck, the boxes and the attaching bolt had been ripped off deck by the waves.

When we passed The Azores we received a Mayday on the radio. It was in the night 24th of November 1997 in very severe
www.harwichhavenshipsandyachts.com
MSC Carla
Built in 1972 as NIHON, she was owned by Swedish East Asiatic Co. Her funnel was yellow with three yellow crowns on a blue disc.

She operated in the Scandutch consortium, sailing between Gothenburg, Hamburg and Rotterdam to Singapore, Hong Kong and Tokyo. She was originally 275.2 metres LOA, but was lengthened in the early 80's to 291 metres. Her propulsion system consisted of 2 controllable pitch wing propellers and one fixed pitch centre propeller.

She was sold to Maersk Line in 1993 and renamed LADBY MAERSK.
She was resold in 1995 and renamed LADBY.
MSC purchased her in 1996 and she was re-named MSC CARLA.
She operated on the Europe to US East Coast service.

On 24th November 1997, just a few days after leaving Le Havre, she broke in two in position 39.31N 025.01W, close to the Azores. Initial reports suggested the crew were pushing the ship too hard in a heavy swell, but the fracture occurred exactly where she was cut in two during the lengthening process. There was an obvious weakness at this point thus exonerating the crew from any neglect.

With the two sections floating freely, the crew (all safe in the aft section) ran the engines astern to keep clear of the bow. Happily, the crew were all rescued by helicopter from the Azores. The forward section subsequently sunk, and the aft section was towed to Spain, and later scrapped.


From www.harwichhavenshipsandyachts.com
weather that M/S MSC Carla was sending Mayday signals.

M/S MSC Carla was broken in 2 pieces that was afloat but the 30th of November the fore ship sunk with all the cargo.

The aft ship was towed to Las Palmas for scrapping. All the crew was saved.

M/S MSC Carla was built as M/S Nihon 1972 for Broström.

We were not too far away from M/S Carla and we called a coast radio station in Norway to check if they needed our assistance. But there were ships on the scene and we could continue to Le Havre in France. Luckily enough all crew survived on board M/S Carla. I can imagine being on a ship when suddenly half the ship disappears in front of your eyes. An experience we can live without!

MSC Carla
MSC Carla
MSC Carla after she broke in to pieces in the storm.
Pictures from Steve Harris web page.

Anyway, after the 1973 energy & oil crisis, did the demand for new oil tankers rapidly decrease World Wide. As such vessels had been a major product for most shipyards during 15-20 years prior to 1973, did the aftermath of this enormous crisis (as OPEC nearly quadrupled the oil price in dollars, in a response to US President Nixon's aid to Israel during the Yom Kippur War) include a severe crisis for most of the shipyards.

Öresundsvarvet was taken over by the state-owned shipbuilding group Svenska Varv AB in 1977.

Landskrona harbour and shipyard today
Landskrona harbour and shipyard today - Click HERE for big photo
We can see a Stena ferry in the dry dock
Picture from www.marinas.com

Landskrona harbour and shipyard today
Landskrona harbour and shipyard today - Click HERE for big photo
We can see a Stena ferry in the dry dock
Picture from www.marinas.com

Landskrona harbour and shipyard today
Landskrona harbour and shipyard today - Click HERE for big photo
We can see a Stena ferry in the dry dock
Picture from www.marinas.com

Landskrona harbour and shipyard today
Landskrona harbour and shipyard today - Click HERE for big photo
We can see a Stena ferry in the dry dock
Picture from www.marinas.com

The last ship, m/s Woendrecht with keel number 282, was delivered in 1982. The shipyard was sold in December 1982 for 1 krona to Landskrona Finance. 1982 they decided to close down Öresundsvarvet and it was no bright future for the worker on the shipyard.

When I was on Tärnvind September - October 2002 I heard on the news that they should close down the shipyards in Landskrona. No one knows about the future for the shipyards in Landskrona. But 1 thing is for sure, they have built first class ships for many years. But seriously, by then I had lost tracks of all the plans and name changes etc. Every name change and it should be better.

m/s Woendrecht leaving Öresundsvarvet and Landskrona
m/s Woendrecht, last ship built leaving Öresundsvarvet and Landskrona
Picture from www.varv100.se

In 1975 they had 3500 people working on the shipyard and they sold the shipyard for 1 Swedish Scooby Doo Krona in Levererade fartyg 1919-19821982. 1 Swedish Scooby Doo Krona is about 15 or 20 cents.

This cause the biggest layoff of workforce in the history of Sweden. Complete list of new built ship from 1919 to 1982 from Öresundsvarvet can be found HERE. From the book “Levererade fartyg 1919-1982”

If you read Swedish you can click HERE for “95 års varvshistoria i Landskrona” from Helsingborgs Dagblad

I was in Landskrona back in 1991, we stayed at the ship yard with m/t Dala Corona, but I think they called it Cityvarvet then. I don't remember, not strange, it was mostly party during the stay.

Öresundsvarvet shipyard
1927 Öresundsvarvet from above
Picture from www.varv100.se

Öresundsvarvet shipyard
1959 Öresundsvarvet from above
Picture from www.varv100.se

Öresundsvarvet shipyard
1975 Öresundsvarvet from above
Picture from www.varv100.se

Öresundsvarvet shipyard
1975 Öresundsvarvet from above
Picture from www.varv100.se

Talöret #2 1983, the very last issue and a wee bit different from the other issues we have read here on www.aladdin.st
Talröret #2 1983
Read by clicking the cover

There were some new building and repair activities and until a new repair yard took over, the Cityvarvet, and they had about 200 workers. A newbuilding shipyard opened in Landskrona, Bruces Shipyard with about 200 workers.

They only built hull that was towed to other yards to get the rest of the ship built. Bruce Shipyard built the hull for the “World” Biggest cruise ship back in 2003 and the biggest hull ever built in Landskrona with a weight of 9000 tons. They also built 2 ships for the famous Hurtigruten in Norway and the order books is full until 2003.

After 10 years waiting period Cityvarvet changed name to Öresundsvarvet. In 2008 Bergen Group buys Fosen Yards. Fosen Yards is Fosens Mekaniska Verkstäder and Landskronavarvet. I think they changed the name of all the shipyards to Landskronavarvet (Landskrona Shipyard) in 2000 when Fosen Yards bought it.

Oresund DryDocks

And as it looks today I think it is Oresund DryDocks, a subsidiary company of Oresund Heavy Industries AB

Oresund DryDocks
Oresund Drydocks in Landskrona.
Photo by Oresund DryDocks
Oresund Dry Docks gets electric conversion project for ferries
Öresund Dry Docks gets electric conversion project for ferries
BY DRYDOCK ON 6TH DECEMBER 2016
Oresund DryDocks


Some recommended links to pages about Öresundsvarvet:
www.varvshistoriska.com
www.varv100.se

Landskrona railway station
The old railway station
Picture from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Landskrona railway station
Landskrona new railway station, opened in January 2001
Picture from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Landskrona Harbour

A natural deep harbour has existed here for a longer time than the town has been known. It's mentioned in the Danish historical work Saxo Grammaticus from around 1200. Since the 18th Century, the harbour has been protected by the artificial island Gråen.

Landskrona Harbour, the main basin. A part of the protecting
artificial island Gråen can be seen to the right, the
shipyard Öresundsvarvet in the background. It may look
that way, but there is no possibility to enter or leave
the harbour to the south, as the waters becomes very
shallow just south a little south of the shipyard.
Picture from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the 1960s it had a total quay length of around 3 km As of 2017 its usable quay length has been greatly reduced, with a tally of approximately 1250 meters of remaining quay, and its activity has been low for decades. The former car ferries to Copenhagen-Tuborg departed from the Nyhamn port, in the northern end.

At a common map, it looks like the harbour has two inlets. But the waters immediately south of the harbour are extremely shallow. The northernmost part of Lundåkrabukten, the bay between Landskrona and Barsebäck, is not just shallow, but also largely free of stronger currents. During cold winter periods, Sea ice can then be formed here, much faster than at most other places in Øresund.

Öresundsvarvet shipyard
Öresundsvarvet shipyard to the left, the former Supra AB to the right and Gråen (an artificial island that protects the harbour) in the background
Picture from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The ferry traffic between Landskrona and Copenhagen started 9th of July 1951 with the ferry Uranienborg. Landskrona was serviced by car ferries and other ships to and from Copenhagen for many years. From 1951 to 1980 did the SL ferries operate the route between Port of Tuborg in northern Copenhagen and Landskrona. During a larger part of that period there were also the Viking Bådene with passengers to the city centre of Copenhagen. Viking Bådene were Danish until around 1970 when the Swedish “Centrumlinjen”. Viking Bådene stopped their service 1973.

Landskrona ferry terminal at Nyhamn
Landskrona ferry terminal in Nyhamn - Postcard from 1909

SL line - Landskrona ferry terminal at Nyhamn
Landskrona ferry terminal in Nyhamn - Postcard from 1960's?

Between 1980 and 1984 different kind of ships and shipping lines offered at least summer time traffic to Copenhagen. And From 1985 Scarlett Line was formed, and once again sailed to Port of Tuborg. Bankrupt 1993 and this was the end of the car and truck traffic from Landskrona to Denmark.

However, hydrofoil speedboats Flygbåtarna AB, which previously only had served passenger traffic in the southern part of Øresund, between Malmö and Copenhagen, began to operate also from both Landskrona and Helsingborg. But in March 2002, almost two years after the inauguration of the Øresund Bridge the Flygbåtarna AB gave up. More about the ferry lines in Landskrona if you click HERE

Copenhagen Airport influence
Aircraft approaching the nearby Copenhagen Airport to land on Runway 22L pass over the northern part of the town, where they make a sharp right turn towards the south to intercept the localiser around Barsebäck. Most landings at Copenhagen take place at Runway 22L. At the busiest times this can lead to consecutive aircraft passing over Landskrona with less than a minute's gap between them.



       
                  



                         

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