Kullaberg




Kullaberg and Kullens lighthouse
Kullaberg and Kullens lighthouse

Kullaberg was the first part of Sweden that was uncovered by the inland ice. The first people came here for hunting reindeer and Kullaberg with its caves could offer better protection than skin tents.

They have found many proofs of early population on Kullaberg from circa 7500 year BC, the Stone Age. Among these traces found are tools and weapons made of stone and houses. The climate got warmer and the beech (A tree, not a misspelling) came to Kullaberg about 3000 years BC.

They have not found any traces of any settlings from the period 1500 - 500 BC on the mountain itself. They have found 2 piece of jewellery from this epoch, both are displayed at the museum in Höganäs. At excavations in Mölle they found a necklet dated to about 1500 BC.

The second finding was discovered on a footpath on Kullaberg. It was a female figure made of a bronze casting dated back to 600 BC Just South of Himmelstorp there are 3 stone circles.

People gathered at the stone rings for sessions, celebrations and it was also used as a market place.

Himmelstorp
Himmelstorp 2011
By Peterappelros - Own work, CC BY 3.0, Link2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Stone ring at Himmelstorp
Stone ring at Himmelstorp
By Peterappelros - Own work, CC BY 3.0, Link2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Surrounded by woody deciduous forest you will find the 4-pieces half-timbered house Himmelstorp on the slopes at the eastern part of Kullaberg. This house was mentioned already 1491 but the present buildings, which are declared as historic buildings, was built during the 19th century.

The local folklore society of Kullen is looking after the house and visitors are welcome the house inside 15 may - 1 September. The celebration of midsummer is done in a traditional way on the 23th of June and harvest festival on the 17th of august.

Himmelstorp, a 4-pieces half-timbered farm on Kullaberg between Mölle and Arild. The name Himmelstorp is from the personal name Hemel or Hemmel.

The farm is mentioned for the first time in 1491 and it belonged to Krapperup Castle. The farm was in use until the middle of the 1900s. Last farmer was Mr. August Johansson. Present buildings are from the first half of the 19th century.

The farm, with the notation “Himmelstorp no. 1” is described since 1656 and Himmelstorp is marked on the very first surveyor's map from 1718. In 1692 there were only 3 rows of house and a dwelling without chimney

In the year of 1790 they demolished one row and built a new stable and in 1807 the farm got 4 rows of building. Himmelstorp is an “old homestead museum” today and is open between May and September.

There is a grave-field from the later Iron Age about 200meter South East from Himmelstorp. About 20 ancient remains, among them 2 stone rings

The archeologically interested finds here an area rich for studies of grave mounds, stone circles, village sites and other ancient findings from different epochs. At the museum
Stone at Krapperup
in Höganäs you van also see the "Björkerödstenen". A stone with carvings.

A smaller stone from Brunnby can be seen on Krapperup.

When the population was growing and when the climate was getting colder there was an increasing demand for arable soil. From the early Middle Ages Krapperup Castle was the centrum of the power and became one of the biggest castles in Skåne.

There was very much herring in Öresund from the Middle Ages and onward, this lead to a flourishing commerce in the area. Churches were built in the fishing villages. The church in Arild is on of the few still preserved.

Church in Aril
Church in Aril - The chapel was probably built in 1475 by fishermen in the area
By Cyhall - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16748012
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Kullagården

Kullagården is an historical estate on the “Italienska Vägen” halfway between Mölle and Kullen Lighthouse The estate have its origin back in the Middle Ages and was first known as “Kulla Gård” Kullagården was efeoffed to the one responsible to keep the light in Kullen Lighthouse.

In the beginning of the 19th century they split Kullagården in to two, the old Kullagården that is known as Ransgården today. The new Kullagården is today a hotel/ restaurant and Mölle golf club. In the 19th century Kullagården became a center for the early tourism to Kullaberg

Map over Kullaberg by Peter P Lundh
Old map over Kullaberg by Peter P Lundh - Click HERE for bigger map

Kullagården was first mentioned as Kuldegaard in a letter from the Danish king back in 1564. It was the Danish state owning the estate and it was enfeoffed to the keeper of Kullen Lighthouse and was also knownas Lyktegården.

The light keeper didn’t have to live on the estate, but he had the responsibility for the light house and had income from the farming on the estate. The Danish king Fredrik II tried to find silver on Kullaberg back in 1561. So he let a part of the estate to the mountain journeyman. But the ore turned out to contain no silver

Between 1577 and 1601 Kullaberg was the famous Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe's enfeoffment. Tycho Brahe had got the island Ven from the Danish king Fredrik II and after discovering the star Nova Stella he became the Danish king's favourite and he was given Kullagården as an enfeoffment on the 28th of August 1577 with the privilege of taking as much timber he needed from Kullaberg to Ven.

And Tycho Brahe needed much timber to build his observatory on Ven as there was no trees on Ven. He had no duty for the light, but the king gave him an ultimatum: If he wanted to keep Kullagården he had to accept the task as light-keeper.

Tycho Brahe also got the assignment to come up with ideas on improvement for Kullen light. Together with people with knowledge about shipping he should investigate if the light was placed on the best spot as they wanted to build a new tower for the light.

There had been complains to the king about the light for a long time and the king continued to receive complains. 1585 the king sent a letter to Tycho Brahe and ordered him to keep better order on the employed people at the light.

Well, Tycho Brahe did not care very much about the light on Kullen while he built Europe's foremost observatory on Ven. The king refused to believe that Tycho Brahe did not take is assignment serious. Tycho Brahe was still the kings favourite and every time the ships complained in Helsingør when paying the transit fee, he just send a warning to Tycho Brahe.

Old Kullagården - Ransgård
Old Kullagården - Ransgård. Burnt down in the year 1900
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Kullagården
New Kullagården. Burnt down in the year 1916
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

New Kullagården
New Kullagården. The pastures are now Mölle Golf Club
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King Frederik II died 1588 and the relations between Tycho Brahe and the royal family turned sour. Emperor Rudolf II gave Tycho Brahe a job as an astronomer in Prague 1597 and he left Denmark. Even though Tycho Brahe mismanaged the light he kept the job until he died 1601, even during his exile.

One of the castle Kronborg architects, Antonis van Opbergen built a new light tower 1585 and replaced the old tower from 1563. When Tycho Brahe died 1601 Claus Podebusk, the owner of Krapperup Castle, got the job as light-keeper on Kullen.

Treaty of Roskilde 1658


The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February (OS) or 8 March 1658 (NS) during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Carl X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde. After a devastating defeat, Denmark-Norway was forced to give up a third of its territory to save the rest, the ceded lands comprising Blekinge, Bornholm, Bohuslän (Båhuslen), Scania (Skåne) and Trøndelag, as well as her claims to Halland.

Treaty of Roskilde 1658
The peace banquet (Fredstaffelet) at Frederiksborg Castle following the signing of the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658

After the treaty entered into force, Swedish forces continued to campaign in the remainder of Denmark-Norway, but had to withdraw from the Danish isles and Trøndelag in face of a Danish-Norwegian-Dutch alliance. The Treaty of Copenhagen restored Bornholm to Treaty of Roskilde 1658Denmark and Trøndelag to Norway in 1660, while the other provinces transferred in Roskilde remain Swedish.

The treaty's conditions included:

• The immediate cession of the Danish province Skåne to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Danish province Blekinge to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Danish province Halland, which under the terms of the Peace of Brömsebro, negotiated in 1645 was then occupied by Sweden for a term of 30 years, to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Danish province of Bornholm to Sweden.

• The immediate cession of the Norwegian province of Bohuslän (Båhuslen) to Sweden. This effectively secured for Sweden unrestricted access to western trade.

• The immediate cession of the Norwegian province of Trøndelag, then including Nordmøre and Romsdal, to Sweden.

• Danish renunciation of all anti-Swedish alliances.

• Danish prevention of any warships hostile to Sweden passing through the straits into the Baltic.

• Restoration of the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp to his estates.

• Danish payment for Swedish occupation forces costs.

• Danish provision of troops to serve Charles in his broader wars.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kullagården became Swedish after the Treaty of Roskilde 1658 and Anders Moensen rented the estate. In 1668 Kulllgården estated became exempted from land dues to the Crown. The estate was then owned by Maria Sofia De la Gardie, the owner of Krapperup Castle. The King took the estate during the “Reduction” when the crown needed more tax money to fight their wars.

Old Kullagården was a manor house north of “Italienska Vägen” and two stables south of the “Italienska Vägen”. The manor burnt down in 1900 and today it is only the two stables remaining and they are now called Ransgården. Kullagårdens connection to Kullen lighthouse continued until the 18th century.

Ransgård
What’s remains of the old Kullagården - Ransgården 2011
By Peterappelros - Own work, CC BY 3.0, Link2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ransgård
What’s remains of the old Kullagården - Ransgården 2011
By Peterappelros - Own work, CC BY 3.0, Link2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In 1740 Nils Nilsson took over Kullagården and the responsibility for Kullens Lighthouse. Nils Nilsson bought Kullagården 1757and his widow Boel kept the estate and the responsibility for Kullens Lighthouse until she died in 1778.

Visit kullensfyr.se for interesting information and pictures!

They had 7 children that took over the estate and they changed their name to Kullenberg. During the 19th century the Elfversson family took over Kullagården.

They have used Kullagården as a “over night place” ever since they opened Kullens Lighthouse. Lighthouse staff and people bringing the coal needed somewhere to stay. In the middle of the 18th century there came more and more visitors. Carl von Linné stayed on the 14 July 1749 during is travels in Skåne

The hotel business started in the beginning of the 19th century and there is a guest book from 1810 and there are many guests coming from far away.

During 1833 to 1834 they split Kullagården, the New Kullagården, about 300 meters west of the old Kullagården. The locals called the new Kullagården foe the “other estate” The old Kullagården became the smaller of the two.

Steen Steensen Blicher, the Danish poet visited Kullagården 1836 and he wrote about it in the book “Sommerreise i Sverrige år 1836” Summer trip to Sweden 1836

Gustaf Elfverson bought the New Kullagården in 1860 and he was now the owner of both of them. The New Kullagården developed in to an Inn and the old Kullagården was the hotel part.

Kullagården turned in to a center for tourism to Kullaberg in the 19th century. Many people came from Germany and Denmark. Many of the Swedish and Danish royalties came to visit and that increased the popularity.

Economic troubles and Elfversson had to sell Kullagården to Krapperup Castle in 1872. Now he rented the place from Krapperup Castle and he continued to develop the tourist industry. He made footpaths, stairs, rails and outlooks on strategically places. He was the one building the “Italienska Vägen” so it got easier to walk from Mölle to Kullens Lighthouse.
Hotel Kullagården
Hotel Kullagården's new building ready at 1917
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kullagårdens Wärdshus
Kullagårdens Wärdshus autumn 2012
By Peterappelros - Own work, CC BY 3.0, Link2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Even though the tourism in Mölle was booming they continued the hotel business at New Kullagården but now with the name Hotel Kullagården. They had built 15 new rooms in 1914. A new restaurant was built. During the whole time they run the farming together with the hotel business

In 1913 Baron Nils Gyllenstierna at Krapperups Castle put the hotel and west part of Kullaberg for sale. He was feed up with the hotel owners in Mölle cashing in on the tourist boom he was making duck all upon the mountain. Rumours about a German buyer that wanted to build a big hotel and to open a stone-quarry

So the westernmost part of Kullaberg almost fell into the hands of private owners who planned to commercially exploit this ample supply of stone. It was saved by far-sighted nature preservationists who, in 1913, purchased this part of the peninsula. A trust company was set up (AB Kullabergs Natur) and has since made large investments in the care of the area.

At the end of the 19th century it became popular to go out and see the nature. All kind of people went out to see the nature. Kullaberg was the perfect place, you could go visit the wilderness and looking at the wild life and be back on your hotel in Mölle or Arild in the afternoon. Mölle was the “Sin city” of Europe by that time.

Hotel Kullagården burnt down 1916 and they built the new building in 1917, the same building we see there today and in the mid 1900's the hotel changed name to Kullagårdens Wärdshus


Italienska Vägen
The Italian Road

The Italian Road goes from Mölle to Kullens Lighthouse about 3 km from Mölle. They call it the Italian Road because the road goes along the mountain side just a few hundered meters after Mölle. The stretch along the mountain side is maybe 200 meters long then it goues through the forest.

Italienska Vägen, Kullaberg
The Italian Road - Postcard from 1910
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Italienska Vägen, Kullaberg
The Italian Road - Postcard from 1940's?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Italienska Vägen, Kullaberg
The Italian Road - Postcard from the beginning of the 1950's
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Italienska Vägen, Kullaberg
The Italian Road 2011
By Peterappelros - Own work, CC BY 3.0, Link2
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

But you can stop there and look out over Mölle. The road was built between 1860 and 1872 by Elfverson, the owner of Kullagården. Before that there were only a walkpath to the lighthouse. It was a toll way from 1914 to 2009 and from the summer of 2010 it is free to drive on the road.



The nature on Kullaberg offered both swimming and contemplation and long hikes. Today Kullagården Inn is one of Sweden's most interesting golf courses with club house, restaurant and lodgings.

It cost a lot of money to construct and maintain the footpaths, parking places and roads. There are also swimming bridges. That's why visitors have to pay a small entrance fee when entering Kullaberg with car. It's free to walk.

When I lived in Mölle it was free for people from Mölle to visit Kullaberg. They told me it was because that there was a bushfire on Kullaberg and they asked the people in Mölle Climbing Kullabergfor help to extinguish the fire.

- Why? We have to pay to go visit Kullaberg.
After that it had been for free for people from Mölle to visit.

Every summer there were Danish climbers falling down from the Kullaberg when I lived in Mölle and I suppose it's the same today. Every time we heard the ambulance, we told each other that it was a Danish climber

The terrain of Kullaberg is very striking in its class. The isolated, high peaks and the vertical cliffs which rise direct from the water form a strong contrast with the surrounding lowlands.

From the highest peak, Håkull (617 ft. above sea level), one has a unique view over land and water in all directions.

Nimis and Arx

In 1980 the artist and art historian Lars Vilks started to work on Nimis, a construction of driftwood and rests from the cutting areas. Nimis (lat. "too much") is now an independent state Ladonia. When Vilks started to work with hammer and nail at Nimis his ideas were rather vague, but he had in mind to make a meeting place between theory and practice.

He chose a spot on the north side of the Kullaberg Nature Reserve for his construction, it was a remote place and he could work for almost two years before his piece was discovered. But 1982 the Nimis was discovered and the County Council reacted and ordered the object that they defined as a building to be removed immediately.

Part of Nimis


Nimis was never removed because it was sold to the German in 1986 the New York artist Christo became the new owner. During these fighting years Nimis expanded to a huge piece. More than 100 meters of lengths, towers about 15 meters and 25 tons of wood, Nimis became an impressive sculpture, attracting thousands of visitors who climbed down the slope to explore the construction.

In 1985 unknown persons set fire to the work and 15 tons of wood disappeared. The artist rebuilt it and made it even bigger and stronger. Today (1996) Nimis consists of 150 meters of sculpture and has a weight of about 70 tons.

In 1991 Vilks started another project next to Nimis: Arx (lat. "fortress"). This time he was using concrete and stones, the concrete to be carried down to the place in a rucksack. He was rather unsure of what he was doing when he met the publisher David Stansvik who claimed that the whole piece was a book in stone. This quite unconventional book made of 150 tons of concrete and stones was published at the publishing house Nya Doxa in August 1993.

Arx

Development of Nimis and Arx 1996-99


After 1995 and many trials things were calmed down for some time. The County Administration Board (CAB) was tired after many years battle in vain. They handed over the matter to the landowner, Gyllenstiernska Krapperupsstiftelsen. "The landowner must take his responsibility." Just a few weeks after this great event the landowner decided not to do anything. They considered as being a trustee giving support to culture and science they shouldn't get involved in demolishing an artwork.

In December 1996 an unknown vandal made an attempt to destroy the 15 m "Tower of the Winds" with a chainsaw. The Tower was provided with nail traps and obviously the attacking man was not pleased with the condition of his chainsaw afterwards. (This tower fell, shall we say peacefully, in a storm in April 1997 and had to be rebuilt.) It might have been the same person or persons who set fire to another tower “The Function of the Ascendant” in February 1997. The tower burnt down, a loss of about 10 tons of wood. It took about a year to rebuild it. Arx 2 was made ready during 1998 and that concluded the pieces concerning new construction. The work to keep them in good conditions goes on continually.

In January 1999 a new work was declared to be an artwork by the artist. This was Omfalos, a small pillar (1,60 m) by stone and concrete. The piece was not made by the artist but he conferred its status as art. The sculptor was the Ladonian Feidias Laidippes who preferred to remain anonymous.

Already in April 1997 the Enforcement Office said yes to the removal of Nimis, Arx and Omfalos. But this decision wasn't worth much. Again a verdict was transferred to the district court. The police started its investigation of the artist in August. The outcome is still not known (Oct 99). The court from Malmö visited Ladonia for an inspection of the artworks. The verdict was announced in September 1999. The Landowner lost most of the case. Nimis and Arx were to left due to the fact that the owners had not been contacted. Omfalos should be removed.

There have been many hours spent in court to try to remove Nimis and Arx. I think it will be there forever

Nimis



Kullaberg is also a very beautiful hiking area.

Nowadays hundreds of thousands tourists are coming to Kullaberg and the villages Mölle and Arild every year from abroad and Sweden.

I haven’t been in Arild for many years but last time in Mölle (1999) there was many new restaurants and all the hotel had been renovated.

Come to Kullaberg all you open-air enthusiasts, nature lovers, hikers, bathers, sports fishermen and others! Together nature and people have formed Kullaberg for your enjoyment.

It depends on all of us if the enjoyment will remain. Please help to preserve this precious milieu.

Park your cars in the parking places and don't drive on the walking paths. Leave flowers and other vegetation in peace, don't break branches and avoid walking in cultivated areas.

Please do not disturb birds or wildlife - for this reason among others all dogs must always be kept on a leash.

Feel welcome to take along a picnic basket and have a nice time by a bay or inlet.

But don't pitch camp or make a fire, and don't disappoint others by leaving trash and other scrap behind.






Nature reserve

Think of:
Don't damage the ground and rocks.
Don't pick any flowers.
Don't break any branches on trees and bushes.
Don't pick animals and plants on the sea bed.
Only allowed to use vehicle on assigned roads. Use the parking place.
Don't camp or use your caravan within the nature reserve.
Be careful with fire and don't make any fire.

At Himmelstorp there are 2 designated fire places to be used.
Keep your dog in a leash.
Show consideration to humans and animals.
No admittance to the north coast between Djupadal and Valdemarsgrottan 1/3 - 15/7
Don't litter.

The regulations within the different areas is given on signs at the entrance and on the tracks.
Naturum Kullaberg


Kullaberg - so totally different from the common idea of Skåne. Wild, beautiful, amazing with breath taking slopes and expansive views over Öresund and Kattegatt. Here you experience a unique plant- and animal Life - Everything explained and put into context at the Visitor Center naturum Kullaberg on the edge of the peninsula at Kullens Lighthouse.
Welcome!





Naturum Kullaberg

naturum Kullaberg invites you to the exhibition “The Gateway to Kullaberg” that shows Kullaberg's Nature Reserve including the sky above it and the sea surrounding it.

At the Visitors Center you find modules with quizzes where you can guess bird calls, fungal species, flowers or strange creatures in the sea.

The children's number one favourite is, of course, the saltwater aquarium where you may touch a starfish. The personnel at the Center can provide suggestions for countryside hikes and excursions.

The idea is simple - naturum Kullaberg is meant to be the gateway to nature.

The centre is owned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, and is managed by the County Administrative Board of Skåne.


       
                  



                         

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