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Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน

The red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), or crested bulbul, is a passerine bird found in Asia. It is a member of the bulbul family. It is a resident frugivore found mainly in tropical Asia. It has been introduced in many tropical areas of the world where populations have established themselves.

It feeds on fruits and small insects. Red-whiskered bulbuls perch conspicuously on trees and have a loud three or four note call. They are very common in hill forests and urban gardens within its range.

Distribution and habitat
This is a bird of lightly wooded areas, more open country with bushes and shrubs, and farmland. Irruptions have been noted from early times with Thomas C. Jerdon noting that they "periodically visiting Madras and other wooded towns in large flocks."

It has established itself in Australia and in Los Angeles, Hawaii, and Florida in the United States, as well as in Mauritius, on Assumption Island and Mascarene Islands. In Florida, it is only found in a small area, and its population could be extirpated easily.

It was eradicated from Assumption Island in 2013–2015 to prevent colonisation of nearby Aldabra, the largest introduced bird-free tropical island.

The red-whiskered bulbul was introduced by the Zoological and Acclimatization Society in 1880 to Sydney, became well established across the suburbs by 1920, and continued to spread slowly to around 100 km away. It is now also found in suburban Melbourne and Adelaide, although it is unclear how they got there.

Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน

Range map from Ornithological Portal Oiseaux.net
Range map from www.oiseaux.net - Ornithological Portal Oiseaux.net
www.oiseaux.net is one of those MUST visit pages if you're in to bird watching. You can find just about everything there


Taxonomy and systematics
The red-whiskered bulbul was originally described with the shrikes within the genus Lanius in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae. Hybrids have been noted in captivity with the red-vented, white-eared, white-spectacled, black-capped and Himalayan bulbuls. Leucism has also been recorded.

Leucistic

adjective  Zoology (of an animal) having whitish fur, plumage, or skin due to a lack of pigment.
ORIGIN from LEUCO- white + the adjectival suffix -istic.


Subspecies
Nine subspecies are recognized:

• P. j. fuscicaudatus - (Gould, 1866): Originally described as a separate species. Found in western and central India. Has a nearly complete breast band and no white tip to tail.

• P. j. abuensis - (Whistler, 1931): Found in north-western India (type locality Mount Abu) Is pale and has a broken breast band and no white tip to tail.

• P. j. pyrrhotis - (Bonaparte, 1850): Originally described as a separate species in the genus Ixos. Found in the Terai of northern India and Nepal. It is pale above with white tail tips and a widely separated breast band

• P. j. emeria - (Linnaeus, 1758): Originally described as a separate species in the genus Motacilla. Found from eastern India to south-western Thailand. Is warm brown above with a slim bill and a long crest (also introduced into Florida)

• P. j. whistleri - Deignan, 1948: Found in the Andaman Islands and has a warm brown plumage above, a heavier bill and a shorter crest than P. j. emeria Chinese red-whiskered bulbul (P. j. monticola) - (Horsfield, 1840): Originally described as a separate species in the genus Ixos. Found from eastern Himalayas to northern Myanmar and southern China and has darker upperparts than P. j. pyrrhotis

• P. j. jocosus - (Linnaeus, 1758): Found in south-eastern China

• P. j. hainanensis - (Hachisuka, 1939): Found on Hainan Island (off south-eastern China)

• P. j. pattani - Deignan, 1948: Found from southern Myanmar and northern Malay Peninsula through Thailand and southern Indochina


Description
The red-whiskered bulbul is about 20 centimetres in length. It has brown upper-parts and whitish underparts with buff flanks and a dark spur running onto the breast at shoulder level. It has a tall pointed black crest, red face patch and thin black moustachial line.

The tail is long and brown with white terminal feather tips, but the vent area is red. Juveniles lack the red patch behind the eye, and the vent area is rufous-orange.

The loud and evocative call is a sharp kink-a-joo (also transcribed as pettigrew or kick-pettigrew or pleased to meet you) and the song is a scolding chatter. It is more often heard than seen, but will often perch conspicuously especially in the mornings when they call from the tops of trees. The life span is about 11 years.

Listen to the Red-whiskered Bulbul




Behaviour and ecology
On the island of Réunion, this species established itself and also aided the spread of alien plant species such as Rubus alceifolius. In Florida they feed on fruits and berries of as many as 24 exotic plants including loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), Lantana spp., Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and figs (Ficus).

In Mauritius they aid the dispersal of Ligustrum robustum and Clidemia hirta. Seeds that pass through their gut germinate better.

Populations of the red-whiskered bulbul on the island of Reunion have diversified in the course of thirty years and show visible variations in bill morphology according to the food resources that they have adapted to utilize.

Breeding
The breeding season is spread out and peaks from December to May in southern India and March to October in northern India. Breeding may occur once or twice a year. The courtship display of the male involves head bowing, spreading the tail and drooping wings.

The nest is cup-shaped, and is built on bushes, thatched walls or small trees. It is woven of fine twigs, roots, and grasses, and embellished with large objects such as bark strips, paper, or plastic bags. Clutches typically contain two to three eggs.

Adults (possibly the female) may feign injury to distract potential predators away from the nest. The eggs have a pale mauve ground colour with speckles becoming blotches towards the broad end.

Eggs measure 21 mm and are 16 mm wide. Eggs take 12 days to hatch. Both parents take part in raising the young.

Young birds are fed on caterpillars and insects which are replaced by fruits and berries as they mature. The chicks are psilopaedic (having down only in the pterylae). Eggs and chicks may be preyed on by the greater coucal and crows.

They defend territories of about 3,000 square metres during the breeding season. They roost communally in loose groups of a hundred or more birds.

Food and feeding
The red-whiskered bulbul feeds on fruits (including those of the yellow oleander that are toxic to mammals), nectar and insects.

Threats
Several avian malaria parasites have been described from the species.

Relationship with humans
This species was once a popular cage bird in parts of India. C. W. Smith noted that

These birds are in great request among the natives, being of a fearless disposition, and easily reclaimed. They are taught to sit on the hand, and numbers may thus be seen in any Indian bazaar. The species continues to be a popular cageBird in parts of Southeast Asia.

Conservation status
Red-wattled lapwing, นกกระแตแต้แว้ด, Vanellus indicus
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T22712634A119273079.
doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22712634A119273079.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

www.birdforum.net


Sighted: (Date of first photo that I could use) 31st of December 2015
Location: Sukhumvit Soi 23 in Bangkok, Thailand


Thank's to Nick Upton at www.thaibirding.com for HOT birding tip. His web page is a ONE STOP for everything you need for bird watching in Thailand. There are reviews of the birding sites with maps and information.

And if you like Nick Upton's web page you will also like www.norththailandbirding.com I have used this page together with Nick Upton's page when planning my birding tours. Excellent reviews and information about the birding sites.

I also got the Thai names of the birds from www.norththailandbirding.com. There is a bird check list with all the names in English and Thai. And of course also the Scientific Name. Down load the birdlist in Microsoft Excel format at www.norththailandbirding.com Or down load the Excel sheet by clicking HERE

And my new aid, maybe, and I say maybe the best aid. I brought my mobile phone as my SIM card have stopped working and I tried to get it to work again so I can use the internet. Thus I had my phone in my pocket on my first game drive in Jim Corbett National Park.

We saw a bird and I asked my Guide and the driver if they had a pen and a paper as I had forgot my pen and paper in my room. I remembered my LG phone and I recorded the name. And thus I will always bring my phone. Writing the name in the car and I have found more than once that it can be hard to read what I had wrote when I'm back in my room.

So now I always have my mobile in my pocket and it has been a great help. And from November 2018 I use eBird. Bird watching in U.A.E and Oman and my guide in Dubai recommended eBird and I have used the app since then and I note every bird I can identify in my eBird app.

Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน
Red-whiskered Bulbul - นกปรอดหัวโขน - 31 December 2015 - Sukhumvit Soi 23 in Bangkok

Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน
Red-whiskered Bulbul - นกปรอดหัวโขน - 31 December 2015 - Sukhumvit Soi 23 in Bangkok

Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน
Red-whiskered Bulbul - นกปรอดหัวโขน - 31 December 2015 - Sukhumvit Soi 23 in Bangkok

Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน
Red-whiskered Bulbul - นกปรอดหัวโขน - 27 February 2018
Doi Chiang Dao - Wat Tham Pha Plong

Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน
Red-whiskered Bulbul - นกปรอดหัวโขน - 27 February 2018
Doi Chiang Dao - Wat Tham Pha Plong

Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus, นกปรอดหัวโขน
Red-whiskered Bulbul - นกปรอดหัวโขน - 27 February 2018
Doi Chiang Dao - Wat Tham Pha Plong



PLEASE! If I have made any mistakes identifying any bird, PLEASE let me know on my guestbook



       
                  



                                       
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